Language: English French. In multiple studies, the transmission rate among steady heterosexual partners of infected individuals has been variable. It is likely that complex biological and epidemiological interactions exist between human immunodeficiency virus HIV and sexually transmitted diseases with respect to transmission and disease. Other important determinants in transmission of infection may relate to the virus itself.
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Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection – Strategies for prevention
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Researchers conducting a meta-analysis of studies of the risk of HIV transmission during heterosexual sex have found that, in high-income countries prior to the introduction of combination therapy, the risk per sexual act was 0. However, these rates were considerably higher in lower-income countries, if the source partner was in either the very early or the late stage of HIV infection, or if one partner had genital ulcer disease, write the researchers in the February issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Marie-Claude Boily and colleagues attempted to identify all relevant observational studies of a sufficient methodological quality that provided empirical estimates of the transmission risk per sexual act rather than the cumulative risk during an ongoing relationship with an HIV-positive person. Looking for material on HIV-1 only, they found 43 relevant publications covering 25 different study populations. More than half were conducted in the USA or western Europe, with most of the others carried out in Africa, and a handful conducted in Thailand and Haiti. Pooling the data from studies in high-income countries, the researchers calculated that the risk of transmission from an HIV-positive man to his female partner was 0. The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis the retractable fold of tissue that covers the head of the penis to reduce the risk of HIV infection in men.
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More than 4 in 10 HIV infections among heterosexual males and 5 in 10 HIV infections among heterosexual females were attributed to this group. Findings may inform the prioritization of prevention and care efforts and resource allocation modeling for reducing new HIV infection among discordant partnerships. Effective strategies are available for preventing HIV transmission through heterosexual contact. Condom use has been a key method used by discordant couples to reduce transmission risk.
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